July 2024 Jobs Report & Industry Update

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Economics & Job Creation
“The Employment Situation – June 2024”

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 206,000 in June, and the unemployment rate
changed little at 4.1 percent, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Job
gains occurred in government, health care, social assistance, and construction. 

This news release presents statistics from two monthly surveys. The household survey
measures labor force status, including unemployment, by demographic characteristics. The
establishment survey measures nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings by industry. For
more information about the concepts and statistical methodology used in these two surveys,
see the Technical Note.

Household Survey Data

Both the unemployment rate, at 4.1 percent, and the number of unemployed people, at 6.8
million, changed little in June. These measures are higher than a year earlier, when the
jobless rate was 3.6 percent and the number of unemployed people was 6.0 million. (See
table A-1.)

Among the major worker groups, the unemployment rates for adult women (3.7 percent) and
Asians (4.1 percent) increased in June. The jobless rates for adult men (3.8 percent),
teenagers (12.1 percent), Whites (3.5 percent), Blacks (6.3 percent), and Hispanics
(4.9 percent) showed little or no change over the month. (See tables A-1, A-2, and A-3.) 

The number of long-term unemployed (those jobless for 27 weeks or more) rose by 166,000
to 1.5 million in June. This measure is up from 1.1 million a year earlier. The long-term
unemployed accounted for 22.2 percent of all unemployed people in June. (See table A-12.) 

The labor force participation rate changed little at 62.6 percent in June, and the
employment-population ratio held at 60.1 percent. These measures showed little or no change
over the year. (See table A-1.) 

The number of people employed part time for economic reasons, at 4.2 million, changed little
in June. These individuals, who would have preferred full-time employment, were working part
time because their hours had been reduced or they were unable to find full-time jobs. (See
table A-8.) 

The number of people not in the labor force who currently want a job declined by 483,000 to
5.2 million in June. These individuals were not counted as unemployed because they were not
actively looking for work during the 4 weeks preceding the survey or were unavailable to take
a job. (See table A-1.) 

Among those not in the labor force who wanted a job, the number of people marginally attached
to the labor force, at 1.5 million, was essentially unchanged in June. These individuals
wanted and were available for work and had looked for a job sometime in the prior 12 months
but had not looked for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. The number of discouraged
workers, a subset of the marginally attached who believed that no jobs were available for
them, edged down to 365,000 in June. (See Summary table A.)

Establishment Survey Data

Total nonfarm payroll employment increased by 206,000 in June, similar to the average monthly
gain of 220,000 over the prior 12 months. In June, job gains occurred in government, health
care, social assistance, and construction. (See table B-1.)

Government employment rose by 70,000 in June, higher than the average monthly gain of 49,000
over the prior 12 months. Over the month, employment increased in local government, excluding
education (+34,000) and in state government (+26,000).

Health care added 49,000 jobs in June, lower than the average monthly gain of 64,000 over the
prior 12 months. In June, employment rose in ambulatory health care services (+22,000) and 
hospitals (+22,000).

Employment in social assistance increased by 34,000 in June, primarily in individual and
family services (+26,000). Over the prior 12 months, social assistance had added an average of
22,000 jobs per month.

Construction added 27,000 jobs in June, higher than the average monthly gain of 20,000 over
the prior 12 months. 

Retail trade employment changed little in June (-9,000), after trending up earlier in the
year. Furniture, home furnishings, electronics, and appliance retailers lost 6,000 jobs over
the month, while warehouse clubs, supercenters, and other general merchandise retailers gained
5,000 jobs.

Employment in professional and business services changed little in June (-17,000) and has
shown little change over the year. Temporary help services employment declined by 49,000 over
the month and is down by 515,000 since reaching a peak in March 2022. Employment in 
professional, scientific, and technical services continued to trend up in June (+24,000). 

Employment showed little change over the month in other major industries, including mining,
quarrying, and oil and gas extraction; manufacturing; wholesale trade; transportation and
warehousing; information; financial activities; leisure and hospitality; and other services.

In June, average hourly earnings for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls increased by
10 cents, or 0.3 percent, to $35.00. Over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings have
increased by 3.9 percent. In June, average hourly earnings of private-sector production and
nonsupervisory employees increased by 10 cents, or 0.3 percent, to $30.05. (See tables B-3 
and B-8.) 

In June, the average workweek for all employees on private nonfarm payrolls was 34.3 hours
for the third consecutive month. In manufacturing, the average workweek was unchanged at 40.2
hours, and overtime remained at 3.0 hours. The average workweek for production and
nonsupervisory employees on private nonfarm payrolls edged down by 0.1 hour to 33.7 hours.
(See tables B-2 and B-7.) 

The change in total nonfarm payroll employment for April was revised down by 57,000, from
+165,000 to +108,000, and the change for May was revised down by 54,000, from +272,000 to
+218,000. With these revisions, employment in April and May combined is 111,000 lower than
previously reported. (Monthly revisions result from additional reports received from 
businesses and government agencies since the last published estimates and from the 
recalculation of seasonal factors.)
 
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